Company:

Infosys

Products:

MSC Nastran
Patran

Industries:

Medical Devices

MSC Nastran Provides More Accurate Solution to Assess Bone Fracture Risk

Overview:

Humans lose bone mass with age because their bones lose calcium and other minerals and become lighter, less dense and more porous. As this process continues, our bones become weaker, increasing the risk of bone fracture. A patient is said to have osteoporosis when bone mineral density (BMD), the concentration of minerals in a unit volume of bone, falls below a threshold value.

Results Validation:

This innovative solution to osteoporosis developed by Infosys uses computer-assisted design and FEA for the evaluation of fracture risk of the vertebrae quantitatively. Stresses computed through the simulation provide more accurate assessment than traditional BMD measurements in the determination of fracture risk. It applies best practices in mechanical engineering to understand the biomechanics of vertebrae.

Benefits:
  • Using MSC Nastran to study the mechanics of vertebrae while taking into account various factors such as the shape, density distribution of cortical/cancellous bone and other material properties of bone tissue and porosity.
  • The solution helps practitioners to study bones in a detailed and non-invasive manner, and quantitatively analyze the fracture risk of vertebrae
  • Stresses computed through the simulation provide more accurate assessment than traditional BMD measurements in the determination of fracture risk

 
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Company:

Ford Motor Company

Products:

Adams

Industries:

Automotive

Ford Leverages Adams FMI Co-Simulation Method to Optimize Tradeoff between Fuel Economy and NVH

Overview:

Noise/vibration/harshness (NVH) and fuel economy often must be traded off against each other during the vehicle design process.

Challenge:

When developing a new vehicle model, engineers are responsible for meeting a wide variety of often conflicting performance targets. Fuel economy and NVH are two of the most important categories of targets.

Benefits:
  • This case study successfully demonstrates the FMI integration approach for vehicle lugging NVH assessment
  • Effectively coupled AMESim Converter Controller model with Adams Driveline and Vehicle model
  • An Optimum Torque Converter slip speed was determined meeting lugging target requirement while balancing with fuel economy
  • Simulation results showed drivetrain torsional vibration along with vehicle vibration (steering wheel & seat track) were effectively reduced with converter slip

 
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Company:

Deggendorf University

Products:

Adams
Adams Car
MSC Nastran

Industries:

Automotive

Quick as Lightning - MSC Software supports 'Team Fast Forest' from Deggendorf

Overview:

Young university students make use of Adams multi-body simulation software to construct a vehicle for entry in the Formula Student competition. ‘Team Fast Forest’ from Deggendorf is using the software to study tires and chassis. Breaking conventional car design, the team will focus on electric vehicles.


 
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Company:

Mahindra Two Wheelers

Products:

Adams

Industries:

Automotive

Adams Multibody Dynamics Simulations Help Bring Two Wheelers to Market 7-21 Weeks Faster

Overview:

In the past, the design of new two wheeler models at Mahindra was based on building prototypes and driving them on a test track. The limitations of this approach were that prototypes took an average of five weeks to build and had to be run for about two weeks to evaluate component durability. A major improvement came when test rigs were introduced and used to recreate the conditions of the test track using automated equipment that eliminated the need for a driver and could be operated 24X7. This approach saved time, however, a complete vehicle prototype iteration was still required for each major design change.

Solution:

Mahindra selected MSC Software’s Adams, the most widely used MBD software for over three decades. MSC Software is the world leader in both MBD and FEA software. Speaking the language of both domains gives MSC the capability to develop the rich data transfer required to fully integrate them. Mahindra has evolved a new virtual testing design process that uses Adams to simulate the performance of new designs and accurately predict their performance prior to the prototype phase.

Results Validation:

Basing the design process on simulation rather than testing provides substantial time and cost savings. The largest savings come from being able to evaluate alternative designs without having to build a prototype. The number of prototypes required to bring a new two wheeler to market has been reduced from 4 or 5 in the past to 2 or 3 now. The time to build and test a new prototype is about 7 weeks so the company has been able to bring new two wheels to market at least 7 to 21 weeks faster than was possible in the past.

Benefits:
  • Simulation provides much more diagnostic information than can be obtained from physical testing
  • Engineers perform parametric analyses to investigate the influence of design variables such as the location of hard points on accelerations
  • Excellent correlation between simulation and measurements on suspension systems
  • The number of prototypes required to bring a new two wheeler to market has been reduced from 4 or 5 in the past to 2 or 3 now
  • Adams bring new two wheels to market at least 7 to 21 weeks faster than was possible in the past

 
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Company:

Scania

Products:

Adams

Industries:

Automotive

Advanced Powertrain Dynamic Analysis and Development Using Adams

Overview:

Scania transmission components are developed as part of Scania’s integrated powertrain with a perfectly matched specification for each individual demand. The gearboxes are designed to suit the high-torque Scania engine range. The multitude of drive axle and bogie options provide optimum strength without inducing a weight penalty. Integrated powertrains are offered to customers on a modular basis in which nearly any gearbox can be combined with nearly any engine.

Challenge:

The traditional approach to the design of gearbox and powertrain components involves creating an initial design based on one-dimension powertrain models and engineering calculations and then building and testing a prototype. With this approach, undesirable properties are identified during physical testing at a late stage in the design process when changes are expensive. Another concern was that the cost involved in building and testing different gearbox-engine combinations can be very high, especially if prototypes have to be rebuilt and retested because the design did not match what was intended the first time.

Solution:

Scania has addressed this challenge by making extensive use of MSC Software’s Adams multibody simulation (MBS) 3D powertrain models that accurately predict transmission dynamic behavior. Scania powertrains are now developed in a virtual environment in which a large number – often thousands – of design alternatives are simulated and evaluated as software prototypes. Simulation predicts the performance of design alternatives prior to committing to the time and cost involved in building and testing physical prototypes.

Results Validation:

Simulation enables Scania engineers to quickly evaluate functional virtual prototypes of power transmission assemblies and components. Working in the MSC Software Adams simulation environment, Scania engineers can exercise powertrain designs under a wide range of conditions using the same tests they normally perform in a test lab but in a fraction of the time. Modifications are validated in the virtual world, which saves a significant amount of time and money in the design process. In some cases engineers have solved quality issues 30 percent to 40 percent faster when running simulation and measurements in parallel due to better understanding of the product.

Benefits:
  • Quickly model and evaluate power transmission assemblies and components
  • Excellent correlation between simulation and measurements in NVH and gear rattle
  • Solved quality issues 30 percent to 40 percent faster than using physical test alone

 
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Company:

CNRS-LAM, France

Products:

Marc

Industries:

Aerospace

The Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille

Overview:

Astronomical telescopes and instruments enable astronomers to see into deep space and unravel the mysteries of the universe. Freeform mirror surfaces – surfaces with a shape more complex than a symmetrical conventional mirror surface (as for example, sphere, parabola, hyperbola, etc.) - offer substantial benefits by providing additional degrees of freedom that make it possible to improve the optical performances of the instrument, reducing the overall instrument mass and size.

Challenge:

The hydroforming process is difficult to design and optimize because the mirror undergoes plastic deformation to provide a freeform optical surface. While the elastic behavior of materials is well known and frequently modeled in optical manufacturing, the analysis of materials under stress in the plastic domain is much more difficult because it involves both material and geometric nonlinearities. One particular importance is the quantifying of the springback effect, in order to control the final shape of the mirror.

Benefits:
  • Reduction of time and cost of physical testing
  • Ability to produce a higher quality mirror surface
  • Accurate modeling of material and geometric nonlinearities

 
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Company:

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Products:

Actran Acoustics

Industries:

Machinery
Shipbuilding

Finding the Solution to a Noise Problem

Overview:
A night time noise complaint was issued from the residential area near one of Wärtsilä’s main large 4-stroke medium speed engine factories located in downtown Vaasa. This factory produces the Wärtsilä 32 ship engine which provides higher unit power, enhanced fuel consumption, significantly reduced componentry and integral computer control to a fiercely competitive sector of the engine business. The Wärtsilä facility produces about 500 engines per year and every engine is subjected to a test run. An investigation found that the likely source of the intolerable noise was from the exhaust from a W6L32E engine 1000 hour endurance test which was running continuously at 750 rpm and full load.
Challenge:
An environmental noise study was conducted in the middle of the night when the test engine was running, with measurements taken at three locations between the test facility and the nearby residential area. Sound pressure level measurements indicated a peak in the sound spectrum at the 100 Hz 1/3 octave band at approximately 94 Hz in narrowband, which corresponds to the crankshaft rotation frequency (CRF) order of 7.5. Typically the exhaust noise of the W6L32E engine should have the highest peaks at CRF orders 3 and 4.5. The measured noise was found to be well under the nighttime environmental noise limit. The annoyance levels were presumed to be high because of the dominant half order modulated low frequency noise components.
Benefits:
  • Accurate vibro-acoustic modeling of exhaust gas pipe system
  • Reduction of environmental sound levels with minimal physical testing

 
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Company:

4Subsea AS

Products:

Marc

Industries:

Energy

Extending the Life of Subsea Drilling Equipment

Overview:
Subsea drilling is conducted through a string of steel pipe called a rigid riser that runs from the oil rig to the blowout preventer (BOP). The primary purpose of the BOP is to cut off the flow of oil in the event of an emergency during drilling. The BOP may be connected to the subsea well directly, which consists of a string of vertical pipe running into the seabed down to the reservoir. The part of the well above (2-5 m) the seabed is called the wellhead system. This is the interface to the equipment to be connected to the subsea well. Alternatively, the BOP may be connected to a valve tree, which in turn is connected to the subsea well. The valve tree is used to control the flow of oil, and is usually called a Christmas tree.
Challenge:
The traditional approach to estimate fatigue life for underwater applications is based on the nominal stress at a given location. The calculated stress is related to test results through S-N curves, which give a required amount of stress cycles to cause fatigue failure. The results from a fatigue test are plotted as stress (S) versus number of cycles to failure (N), which gives the S-N curve. However, fatigue testing is expensive and time consuming so it is usually possible only in certain cases.
Benefits:
  • Greater understanding of crack growth
  • More accurate prediction on part life-cycle
  • Increased uptime of drilling rig

 
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Company:

Uponor GmbH

Products:

Simufact
Simufact Forming

Industries:

Consumer Products

Process optimization through forming simulation

Overview:

One of the most important factors for efficient manufacturing was considered to be the experience of the blacksmith. This includes the knowledge of and the feeling for the temperatures in the blank as well as the right selection of the workpiece sizes and the correct angle for putting them into the die. Entering the forging business seems to be quite difficult for a company because it has to gain the required experiences to realize an efficient forging process.


 
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Company:

Schmiedag GmbH & Co. KG
Wildauer Schmiedewerke GmbH

Products:

Simufact
Simufact Forming

Industries:

Shipbuilding

Forming simulation streamlines manufacturing process of large forgings

Overview:

Crankshafts for large diesel engines that are used in container ships are usually forged in middle and small series. Because every crankshaft has specific features, their manufacturing and design is a challenge. This is where the forming simulation comes into play.


 
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Company:

Neumayer Tekfor Holding GmbH

Products:

Simufact
Simufact Forming

Industries:

Automotive

Forming simulation in the automotive industry – quality and cost efficiency at Neumayer Tekfor

Overview:

An optimal manufacturing process for automotive components is essential for the quality and the cost efficiency of these components. This is the reason why the use of simulation tools prior to the production has increased. With simulation, the process can be planned in detail to save material or increase the uptime of the machines.


 
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Company:

LuK USA LLC, Schaeffler Group Automotive

Products:

Simufact
Simufact Forming

Industries:

Automotive

LuK innovates manufacturing processes through forming simulation with Simufact

Overview:

In the automotive supplier industry, innovative product design and manufacturing solutions are essential for being competitive. Components and subsystems are engineered to achieve highest quality standards and must be offered at a competitive price. As those parts are usually produced in large quantities, a failure of only one component can lead to very expensive recalls, let alone the damage of the manufacturer’s reputation. Design and simulation solutions are required to offer an environment that delivers a mature and robust way to archive a greater knowledge about the optimal design and the manufacturing process, while giving the engineers the ability to find innovative solutions.


 
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Company:

Fokker Space

Products:

Adams

Industries:

Aerospace

Meeting the Challenge: Engineering for a New Class of Satellite

Overview:

The subject of this case study was an effort undertaken within Fokker Space to lower the volume and mass of solar panel array designs. This culminated in the Curwin solar panel array concept which used a curved arrangement of solar panels (like a tape measure) instead of a separate backbone structure to reduce both volume and mass while retaining the required stiffness and high frequency response.

Challenge:

The goals for the simulation of the deployment were:

  • Determine the important factors in a successful deployment
  • Evaluate the initial design of the solar panel array
  • Validate design changes to meet the requirements of a successful deployment
  • Final validation of a design that resulted in a controlled and reliable deployment
Solution:

MSC Software’s Adams was chosen to analyze the multibody dynamic process during the deployment. In the past, Adams has been successfully used within the spacecraft industry to model solar panel deployment.

Benefits:
  • Lower volume and mass of solar panel array design
  • Reduce costs from $10,000 per pound for a single satellite launched via heavy rockets to below $3,000 with new approach
  • Realistic simulation to replicate on-orbit conditions during deployment

 
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Company:

Products:

Digimat

Industries:

Aerospace

Progressive Failure Analysis of an Open Hole Tensile Test

Challenge:

Continuous fiber composites are much more complex than metal, with respect to failure in particular. If they are so-called unidirectional (UD), they involve stacks of several plies, each ply characterized by a single fiber orientation. Hence they fail because of various mechanisms taking place at the ply level (matrix cracking, fiber breakage, fiber-matrix debonding) or between the plies (delamination). These mechanisms remain not fully understood and are investigated through experimental and virtual testing.

This complexity is usually not captured by simulation so that UD composite material properties are currently obtained only from physical testing, requiring high investments in time and money. The replacement of a fair amount of real tests by simulation requires the development of an accurate model for progressive failure in order to obtain predictive simulations of plain, open-hole or filled-hole coupon scenarios among others.

Solution:

To accurately predict the properties of UD composites, Digimat advantageously combines micromechanics, deriving composite properties from constituent properties through mean-field homogenization, and progressive failure. At the phase level, Digimat is employed to define and reverse-engineer the matrix – e.g. epoxy – and fiber – e.g. carbon – stiffnesses. At the ply level, it exploits a Hashin failure criterion to apply a mechanism sensitive to matrix and fiber failure. In addition, it enables a stiffness reduction according to the Matzenmiller-Lubliner-Taylor model.

Digimat is then coupled to a finite element solver to provide the solver with the material properties. In the example of the simulation of a quasi-isotropic open hole tensile test, Digimat’s progressive failure enables to account for the failure sequence involving damage initiation in 90° plies and ultimate failure after failure of 0° plies. Such coupled analyses can be run for implicit or explicit solvers, both available within MSC Nastran for instance. Taking into account the specific requirements of test standards and the systematic collection of experimental data, Digimat enables a high level of automation for the purpose of screening material properties.

Benefits:

Continuous fiber composites have rapidly spread across aerospace components for their lightweighting capabilities but pose design challenges because of their complex properties. In particular, their failure behavior is not easily characterized and requires new tools to be realistically simulated. In that respect, micromechanical material models allied to progressive failure provide an in-depth understanding of the composite behavior at the constituent – matrix or fiber – level and a directionally selective stiffness degradation. Hence they pave the way for a reduction in experimental testing in favor of virtual testing.

The MLT model in combination with Hashin failure is a promising route for describing progressive failure. Our first results show a physical behavior of the damage and failure mechanism in the open-hole coupon.

Benoît Bidaine, Project Engineer, e-Xstream engineering


 

Company:

Big Tyre

Products:

Marc

Industries:

Heavy Equipment

Nonlinear Analysis Accelerates Development of Non-Pneumatic, Non-Solid Tire for Mining Industry

Overview:

Designing the right tire for large wheeled vehicles used to haul coal and other materials in underground mines presents an enormous design challenge. Pneumatic tires present risks because of the danger of an explosion in a confined space while solid tires are associated with relatively large vibrations experienced by the driver. Big Tyre, a company that specializes in producing solid tires for mining vehicles, is developing a unique alternative which uses arrays of leaf-springs, typically made of composite materials, to provide performance similar to pneumatic tires without the risk of blow-outs.

Challenge:

Big Tyre is a manufacturer of solid wheels that are primarily used in underground mining vehicles. “Many mining companies have switched from pneumatic tires to solid wheels because of the dangers presented by pneumatic tires underground,” Louden said. “Mines underground have bolts sticking out of the walls that can easily cause punctures. Tires on heavy vehicles are inflated as high as 170 psi, so when they are torn or punctured a considerable amount of force is released. Due to space constraints underground, workers are often in close proximity to the tires so the potential for injury when a tire is torn or ruptures is a major concern.”

Solution:

The design concept provides the flexibility and challenge of defining various design parameters including the number of springs in an array, thickness of springs, curvature of springs, length of springs, material properties of springs, geometry and material properties of the segments that the springs attach to on the outer diameter of the wheel, as well as many others. The design criterion is to provide a very efficient vertical loading for the size of the wheel while providing similar if not equivalent suspension to a pneumatic tire, with excellent torque capacity and lateral stability.

Results Validation:

Compumod first conducted a nonlinear static analysis on one spring to correlate the model material properties with experimental data. The material properties were tuned to replicate the measured reaction force in the experiment. Then a nonlinear analysis was performed on the entire wheel to assess its strength. The wheel was given an enforced displacement of 150 mm which was solved in 100 nonlinear increments. The reaction force was then measured on the ground and graphed against displacement. The first negative slope indicated failure of the wheel at 252 kiloNewtons or 25.7 metric tons, which is well over the target of 16 metric tons. After the first collapse of the wheel, the contact between the springs and between the springs and segments added stiffness to the wheel and the reaction force increased again for increasing displacements.

Benefits:

“After seeing the benefits of the software, we decided to purchase Patran and Marc,” Louden said. “Compumod organized training for us in their Sydney office and handed over the models they created in the consulting project. We very quickly began designing the second full-size version of our design, and have been able to improve the design at a much faster pace than in the past. It even allows us to simulate driving maneuvers of the vehicles, including obstacles on the road.


 
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