University of Cassino
The detachment or tearing of the retina in
the human eye as a result of a collision is a
phenomenon that occurs very often. The
project was aimed at understanding the actual
processes of dynamic deformation taking place
in the human eye when subjected to blunt
impact. For this project an FEA model was
developed in MSC’s Dytran software starting
from 3D measurements of real human eyes.
The results of the model were then compared to
measurements with respect to the deformation
at different times and to the residual velocity
of the projectile during the rebound phase.
- Over 60% of all eye injuries are caused by blunt
impact, i.e. impacts with objects of various kinds
that do not cause a perforation of the globe.
- Based on evidence of a patient who, despite
having undergone the removal of the vitreous,
had a clear macular hole resulting from a
blunt impact, it was decided to investigate
this phenomenon in more detail in order to
validate the various hypotheses of damaging
mechanism with the help of a MSC Dytran
- The computational model of the ocular globe
was generated starting from an average size
human eye represented with the help of the
code MSC Dytran.
- The preliminary results of the project indicate
that the laceration of the retina mainly occurs
due to the tension resulting from the reflection
of compression waves in the moments
immediately following the impact, and not
necessarily due to the deformation of the whole
- The availability of a reliable and validated
model for the simulation enabled the research
team to understand in detail the pathogenesis
of the blunt impact phenomenon, which is
particularly difficult to reproduce in a controlled
and instrumented manner through physical
tests in the laboratory.
- Practical applications
of this study are to be found especially in the
military industry, for example in the design of
advanced security systems for personnel and for
helicopter pilots in the event of a crash landing.