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Company:

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Products:

Actran Acoustics

Industries:

Machinery
Shipbuilding

Finding the Solution to a Noise Problem

Overview:
A night time noise complaint was issued from the residential area near one of Wärtsilä’s main large 4-stroke medium speed engine factories located in downtown Vaasa. This factory produces the Wärtsilä 32 ship engine which provides higher unit power, enhanced fuel consumption, significantly reduced componentry and integral computer control to a fiercely competitive sector of the engine business. The Wärtsilä facility produces about 500 engines per year and every engine is subjected to a test run. An investigation found that the likely source of the intolerable noise was from the exhaust from a W6L32E engine 1000 hour endurance test which was running continuously at 750 rpm and full load.
Challenge:
An environmental noise study was conducted in the middle of the night when the test engine was running, with measurements taken at three locations between the test facility and the nearby residential area. Sound pressure level measurements indicated a peak in the sound spectrum at the 100 Hz 1/3 octave band at approximately 94 Hz in narrowband, which corresponds to the crankshaft rotation frequency (CRF) order of 7.5. Typically the exhaust noise of the W6L32E engine should have the highest peaks at CRF orders 3 and 4.5. The measured noise was found to be well under the nighttime environmental noise limit. The annoyance levels were presumed to be high because of the dominant half order modulated low frequency noise components.
Benefits:
  • Accurate vibro-acoustic modeling of exhaust gas pipe system
  • Reduction of environmental sound levels with minimal physical testing

 
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Company:

4Subsea AS

Products:

Marc

Industries:

Energy

Extending the Life of Subsea Drilling Equipment

Overview:
Subsea drilling is conducted through a string of steel pipe called a rigid riser that runs from the oil rig to the blowout preventer (BOP). The primary purpose of the BOP is to cut off the flow of oil in the event of an emergency during drilling. The BOP may be connected to the subsea well directly, which consists of a string of vertical pipe running into the seabed down to the reservoir. The part of the well above (2-5 m) the seabed is called the wellhead system. This is the interface to the equipment to be connected to the subsea well. Alternatively, the BOP may be connected to a valve tree, which in turn is connected to the subsea well. The valve tree is used to control the flow of oil, and is usually called a Christmas tree.
Challenge:
The traditional approach to estimate fatigue life for underwater applications is based on the nominal stress at a given location. The calculated stress is related to test results through S-N curves, which give a required amount of stress cycles to cause fatigue failure. The results from a fatigue test are plotted as stress (S) versus number of cycles to failure (N), which gives the S-N curve. However, fatigue testing is expensive and time consuming so it is usually possible only in certain cases.
Benefits:
  • Greater understanding of crack growth
  • More accurate prediction on part life-cycle
  • Increased uptime of drilling rig

 
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Company:

Uponor GmbH

Products:

Simufact
Simufact Forming

Industries:

Consumer Products

Process optimization through forming simulation

Overview:

One of the most important factors for efficient manufacturing was considered to be the experience of the blacksmith. This includes the knowledge of and the feeling for the temperatures in the blank as well as the right selection of the workpiece sizes and the correct angle for putting them into the die. Entering the forging business seems to be quite difficult for a company because it has to gain the required experiences to realize an efficient forging process.


 
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Company:

Schmiedag GmbH & Co. KG
Wildauer Schmiedewerke GmbH

Products:

Simufact
Simufact Forming

Industries:

Shipbuilding

Forming simulation streamlines manufacturing process of large forgings

Overview:

Crankshafts for large diesel engines that are used in container ships are usually forged in middle and small series. Because every crankshaft has specific features, their manufacturing and design is a challenge. This is where the forming simulation comes into play.


 
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Company:

Neumayer Tekfor Holding GmbH

Products:

Simufact
Simufact Forming

Industries:

Automotive

Forming simulation in the automotive industry – quality and cost efficiency at Neumayer Tekfor

Overview:

An optimal manufacturing process for automotive components is essential for the quality and the cost efficiency of these components. This is the reason why the use of simulation tools prior to the production has increased. With simulation, the process can be planned in detail to save material or increase the uptime of the machines.


 
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Company:

LuK USA LLC, Schaeffler Group Automotive

Products:

Simufact
Simufact Forming

Industries:

Automotive

LuK innovates manufacturing processes through forming simulation with Simufact

Overview:

In the automotive supplier industry, innovative product design and manufacturing solutions are essential for being competitive. Components and subsystems are engineered to achieve highest quality standards and must be offered at a competitive price. As those parts are usually produced in large quantities, a failure of only one component can lead to very expensive recalls, let alone the damage of the manufacturer’s reputation. Design and simulation solutions are required to offer an environment that delivers a mature and robust way to archive a greater knowledge about the optimal design and the manufacturing process, while giving the engineers the ability to find innovative solutions.


 
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Company:

Fokker Space

Products:

Adams

Industries:

Aerospace

Meeting the Challenge: Engineering for a New Class of Satellite

Overview:

The subject of this case study was an effort undertaken within Fokker Space to lower the volume and mass of solar panel array designs. This culminated in the Curwin solar panel array concept which used a curved arrangement of solar panels (like a tape measure) instead of a separate backbone structure to reduce both volume and mass while retaining the required stiffness and high frequency response.

Challenge:

The goals for the simulation of the deployment were:

  • Determine the important factors in a successful deployment
  • Evaluate the initial design of the solar panel array
  • Validate design changes to meet the requirements of a successful deployment
  • Final validation of a design that resulted in a controlled and reliable deployment
Solution:

MSC Software’s Adams was chosen to analyze the multibody dynamic process during the deployment. In the past, Adams has been successfully used within the spacecraft industry to model solar panel deployment.

Benefits:
  • Lower volume and mass of solar panel array design
  • Reduce costs from $10,000 per pound for a single satellite launched via heavy rockets to below $3,000 with new approach
  • Realistic simulation to replicate on-orbit conditions during deployment

 
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Company:

Big Tyre

Products:

Marc

Industries:

Heavy Equipment

Nonlinear Analysis Accelerates Development of Non-Pneumatic, Non-Solid Tire for Mining Industry

Overview:

Designing the right tire for large wheeled vehicles used to haul coal and other materials in underground mines presents an enormous design challenge. Pneumatic tires present risks because of the danger of an explosion in a confined space while solid tires are associated with relatively large vibrations experienced by the driver. Big Tyre, a company that specializes in producing solid tires for mining vehicles, is developing a unique alternative which uses arrays of leaf-springs, typically made of composite materials, to provide performance similar to pneumatic tires without the risk of blow-outs.

Challenge:

Big Tyre is a manufacturer of solid wheels that are primarily used in underground mining vehicles. “Many mining companies have switched from pneumatic tires to solid wheels because of the dangers presented by pneumatic tires underground,” Louden said. “Mines underground have bolts sticking out of the walls that can easily cause punctures. Tires on heavy vehicles are inflated as high as 170 psi, so when they are torn or punctured a considerable amount of force is released. Due to space constraints underground, workers are often in close proximity to the tires so the potential for injury when a tire is torn or ruptures is a major concern.”

Solution:

The design concept provides the flexibility and challenge of defining various design parameters including the number of springs in an array, thickness of springs, curvature of springs, length of springs, material properties of springs, geometry and material properties of the segments that the springs attach to on the outer diameter of the wheel, as well as many others. The design criterion is to provide a very efficient vertical loading for the size of the wheel while providing similar if not equivalent suspension to a pneumatic tire, with excellent torque capacity and lateral stability.

Results Validation:

Compumod first conducted a nonlinear static analysis on one spring to correlate the model material properties with experimental data. The material properties were tuned to replicate the measured reaction force in the experiment. Then a nonlinear analysis was performed on the entire wheel to assess its strength. The wheel was given an enforced displacement of 150 mm which was solved in 100 nonlinear increments. The reaction force was then measured on the ground and graphed against displacement. The first negative slope indicated failure of the wheel at 252 kiloNewtons or 25.7 metric tons, which is well over the target of 16 metric tons. After the first collapse of the wheel, the contact between the springs and between the springs and segments added stiffness to the wheel and the reaction force increased again for increasing displacements.

Benefits:

“After seeing the benefits of the software, we decided to purchase Patran and Marc,” Louden said. “Compumod organized training for us in their Sydney office and handed over the models they created in the consulting project. We very quickly began designing the second full-size version of our design, and have been able to improve the design at a much faster pace than in the past. It even allows us to simulate driving maneuvers of the vehicles, including obstacles on the road.


 
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Company:

Comtes FHT

Products:

Marc

Industries:

Machinery

Marc Heat Transfer Analysis Helps Solve Tough Forging Problem

Challenge:

Pilsen Steel, a leading producer of castings, ingots and forgings experienced difficulties with ingots cracking in a forging operation. The company contracted with COMTES FHT to investigate and determine the root cause of the formation of longitudinal cracks in 34CrNiMo6 steel ingots.

Solution:

Traditional process involved cooling of the ingots after casting to between 500oC and 600oC, after which the ingots are placed in the forging furnace at temperature of 1100oC to 1200oC. COMTES used MSC Software’s Marc nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) software to analyze the process of heating the ingots in the furnace and confirmed that heating the ingots in the furnace generated thermal stresses that later caused cracks to form during forging. Additional simulation studies also showed that increasing the temperature of the ingots by 100oC prior to putting them into the furnace reduced thermal stresses to acceptable levels. Pilsen Steel implemented this change and it eliminated the cracking problem.

Benefits:
  • Realistic Simulation of the Multiphysics behavior of metal during manufacturing
  • Elimination of cracking in final product reducing reject rate and improving product quality

Performing thermal analysis on the complete ingot workload requires determining the radiant heat transfer between the furnace and each of the each ingots with shading effects taken into account. Marc excels at this type of challenging multiphysics problem which is why it is our finite element analysis tool of choice

Tikal, COMTES FHT


 
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Company:

Medicrea

Products:

Digimat

Industries:

Medical Devices

Designing Spinal Disc Prosthesis Implants using Short Fiber Reinforced Composites

Overview:

Spinal injury and the gradual deterioration of spinal discs that lead to back pain or spinal disorders can be treated surgically. One of the most promising surgical options under continuous development is the use of artificial discs to replace the patient’s natural spinal disc. The materials used in these artificial discs are an important factor in the development of this technology. The discs must be made from materials that are safe to be implanted in the human body, do not cause allergic reactions, but also wear resistant and compatible with medical imaging (MRI for example). Fiber reinforced plastic composites are used more and more in today's orthopedic implants because of their resistance to wear and improved mechanical properties.

Challenge:

The challenge when designing implants that take advantage of reinforced plastics is predicting the manufactured material performance. The mechanical properties of an implant designed with fiber reinforced plastics can vary widely depending on the use of the material and how the implant is manufactured. The injection or compression molding process used to manufacture the implant will affect the fiber orientations throughout the part. Typical analysis assumes the material is isotropic for simplicity, but in reality the fiber alignment is continuously changing throughout the implant, resulting in a heterogeneous, anisotropic material. Poorly aligned fibers or not appropriately accounting for the fibers’ effect on material performance can lead to a softer or stiffer implant than designed, and even premature failure.

Solution:

MSC Software’s Digimat produces a much more accurate prediction of the composite behavior for materials such as fiber reinforced plastics. The process is simple. Start with the same finite element model of the implant that is used for the existing analysis. Digimat will work with any major finite element solver. Next, request the injection mold simulation results from the manufacturer. This analysis is done to assure the implant’s mold has been designed properly for manufacture, but the results can also be used in the finite element analysis of the implant itself. To do this, use Digimat to map the fiber orientations, residual temperatures and residual stresses onto the structural analysis model.

Select or create an intelligent material model of the reinforced plastic using the tools provided by Digimat. The intelligent material model is a function of fiber orientations instead of a static value, allowing Digimat to adjust the material stiffness at every location throughout the implant. Finally, conduct the analysis as normal with one exception, the static value for material stiffness will be replaced by a Digimat material model.

Digimat takes care of tying the intelligent material into the analysis solution so that the analyst can focus on designing the implant’s performance, not guessing at which material property might give the best results.

Results Validation:

The attention to material details result in much more accurate simulations that reduce test/ analysis iterations and improve performance predictions. In the case of the Medicrea design, the original isotropic simulation over-predicted the implant’s stiffness by as much as 170%.

The same simulation using a Digimat material model that accounted for both changes in fiber orientations as well as plastic deformations matched the test results almost perfectly.

Benefits:
  • Cost and time savings
  • Reduce test/analysis iterations
  • Improve performance predictions by 170%

 
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Company:

NASA (JWST-ISIM)

Products:

MSC Nastran
Patran

Industries:

Aerospace

Structural Analysis and Model Validation for the JWST ISIM Structure Using MSC Nastran

Overview:

The James Webb Space Telescope is a highly sensitive instrument that is positioned using a precise optical metering support structure. This supporting structure is made from composites to reduce thermal expansion effects while reducing weight. The instrument and structure are subjected to temperatures ranging from ambient during launch to cryogenic temperatures while in orbit. Dynamic and static loads are encountered during launch and in operation respectively.

Challenge:

The support structure must meet stringent structural requirements related to distortion, dynamic and static loading events. Testing must be supplemented by analysis to verify and improve the limited number of physical tests. Methodologies must be developed to explore the design via a probabilistic approach and satisfy performance within a 2-sigma range of uncertainty.

Solution:

A high fidelity MSC Nastran model (1.5 M nodes, ~5M DOF) was used to examine the structural integrity of the ISIM structure at the global level due to thermal and gravity loads (SOL 101) and a reduced Craig-Bampton model for dynamic analysis (SOL 103). Global only and global-local (detailed stress models) approaches were used along with testing as a basis to develop and validate methodologies and allowables for the design of composite joints.

The high fidelity MSC Nastran dynamic model was validated via subassembly testing and the results were used to determine optimal placement of instrumentation, excitation load point and target modes. The high fidelity MSC Nastran model was also used to predict the thermal distortion that occurs moving from ambient to cryogenic temperatures, cryogenic thermal stability and physical distortion from 1 G loading.

The model was also used to quantify error bounds and uncertainties due to material, manufacturing and spatial variability compared to a nominal analysis. The same model was used to determine and validate strength allowables via a semi empirical approach. These allowables included composite interlamina failure, composites n-plane failure and metallic ultimate and yield failure conditions at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures. In addition, the global-local approach was used to validate adhesive maximum principal stress failure allowables at cryogenic temperatures.

Results Validation:

Direct application of the MSC Nastran solver resulted in a validated design that agreed with dynamic test results with frequencies matching within 5%. Thermal distortion predictions were validated with cryogenic testing and the error bound associated with nominal predictions was established. Allowables validated by MSC Nastran models were shown to be conservative at predicting composite joint failure at ambient and cryogenic temperatures.

Benefits:
  • Accurately predict dynamic, distortion & strength performance of a composite structure at launch & in orbit
  • Close agreement to test results
  • Ability to accurately replicate the extreme environments in space

 
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Company:

CRC-ACS

Products:

Marc
MSC Nastran

Industries:

Aerospace

Accurately Solving Postbuckling Composite Stiffened Panels in Marc and MSC Nastran

Overview:

This paper outlines the CRC-ACS (Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced Composite Structures) contribution to a software code benchmarking exercise as part of the European Commission Project COCOMAT investigating composite postbuckling stiffened panels. Analysis was carried out using MSC Nastran (Nastran) solution sequences SOL 106 and SOL 600, Abaqus/Standard (Abaqus) and LS-Dyna, and compared to experimental data generated previously at the Technion, Israel and DLR, Germany.

The finite element (FE) analyses generally gave very good comparison up to initial postbuckling, with excellent predictions of stiffness, and mostly accurate representations of the initial postbuckling mode shape, leading to fair comparison in deep postbuckling. Accurate modeling of boundary conditions and panel imperfections were crucial to achieve accurate results, with boundary conditions in particular presenting the most critical problem.

Challenge:
Utilizing composite compression tests performed by the Israel Institute of Technology (Tension) and the Israel Aircraft Industries, a “state of the art” study was performed for composite buckling verification via Finite Element Analysis. Comparisons were completed for MSC Nastran SOL106, Marc (via Nastran SOL600), Abaqus and LSDyna.
Solution:

The particular panel selected was a fuselage-representative, 5-blade stiffened, curved panel. A summary of the panel specifications is given in Table 1, where the 0° direction is parallel to the stiffeners. The stiffener and skin are joined using a flange, where the stiffener plies are continued over the web, half on each side, and the flange outer plies are sequentially terminated 4 layers at a time, at increments of 10 mm.

The test panel was encased in potting on both ends to ensure a homogenous distribution of the applied displacement. Large plates were used on the panel sides, aligned with the tangent to the panel edge, to restrict radial displacements without adding constraint in the tangential direction. Panel skin imperfections were measured using an LVDT probe. The testing procedure involved loading the panel in compression up to a point where global buckling was seen in a moiré fringe pattern, then unloading. This was repeated twice, before the moiré fringe was removed and the panel loaded to collapse.

Results Validation:

The structural stiffness and buckling load were predicted well, though all models slightly under-predicted the buckling point by a maximum of 11%. The strain data gave less acceptable correlations, while the pre-buckling and initial postbuckling predicted moderately well, leading to poor correlations in deep postbuckling. Panel failure was not captured by either solution sequence, though Marc has the capacity to monitor various failure criteria.

Comparatively, the two Nastran solution sequences gave very similar behavior for most results, with only strain values data showing significant discrepancies. The axial shortening of both solution sequences did show slight discrepancies, especially in the deep postbuckling region. The SOL 600 (Marc) solution gave higher stiffness, seen in a slightly higher global buckling load, and a slightly different stiffness in the deep postbuckling region. The deformation pattern and displacement of various points around the panel showed close agreement, with only small variations in the deep postbuckling region.

Benefits:
• Accurately predict performance of panels before buckling and even with post buckled performance
• Close agreement to experimental data
• By utilizing accurate simulation, millions of dollars can be saved on a single new aircraft program

 
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Company:

The Hadley Group

Products:

Marc

Industries:

Machinery

Simulation Increases Sales $4 Million by Validating New Cold Roll Forming Process for Customer Applications

Overview:

Hadley Industries PLC’s core business is manufacturing cold roll formed products, primarily to the building and construction industries. The company developed and patented a unique cold forming process known as UltraSTEEL® which significantly improves mechanical and structural properties of the strip steel by imparting a dimpling pattern prior to the roll forming operation. The geometry is much too complex to determine the structural properties of the end product based on analytical calculations alone, and it could cost $30,000 to $150,000 for tooling to manufacture the part so its properties could be physically measured.

Challenge:

Hadley addressed this challenge by using Marc nonlinear finite element analysis software to predict the highly nonlinear changes in geometry and material properties that occur during the UltraSTEEL® process, cold roll forming and secondary processes. “Marc overcame problems seen with other finite element software packages such as nonconvergence and provided reliable and consistent results that matched experimental measurements,” said Dr Martin English, Design and Development Manager for Hadley. “The ability to accurately simulate the process and quickly determine its performance in customer applications has been responsible for a substantial increase in sales volume estimated to total over $4 million over the next three years.”

Solution:

Complex and interrelated nonlinear changes in contact, geometry and material properties occur during the UltraSTEEL® process and subsequent section forming and secondary operations. “The simulation challenge involves both accurately simulating these processes as well as applications under loading,” Nguyen said. “This requires simulations that connect to previous or subsequent simulations to perform continuous processes while taking into account the changes in geometry, material and structural properties of the materials. An important advantage of Marc in this regard is its PRE STATE procedure which can be used to transfer the geometry of the dimpled strip together with its material data including stress/strain data generated from the dimpling process into the subsequent simulations such as the cold roll forming process.”

The ideal approach is to simulate the entire chain of processes as a sequence from start to finish: 1) the dimpling process that deforms a flat steel strip into a dimpled strip, 2) the cold roll forming process that produces the desired section, and 3) additional processes such as shear cutting and applications such as products under tension, bending, compression loads, etc. The geometry and material data of the dimpled strip are transferred from one process to the next in a closed loop. This approach is practical for small sections of dimpled products and optimizing the dimpling process itself. However, the models of the rolls and dimpled strip can contain tens of millions of elements for larger models so transferring the stress/strain data between each of the stages becomes very complicate and time-consuming, resulting in high computational costs.


Results Validation:

“The reliable and consistent results provided by Marc make it possible to accurately assess the applicability of UltraSTEEL® for existing and new products in a short time frame at a low cost,” English concluded. “The accurate simulations have enabled Hadley to make and substantiate technical claims regarding the benefits of the process. As a result the company has increased its sales of UltraSTEEL® products and also generated additional revenue by increasing licensing of the process amounting to an estimated $4 million over the next three years.”

Benefits:
  • Reliable, consistent results that matched experimental measurements
  • Reduced physical prototyping for product development cost savings
  • Higher accuracy by accounting for forming induced residual stresses in product testing

 
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Company:

Airbus

Products:

Actran TM

Industries:

Aerospace

Simulation Helps Airbus Optimize Acoustic Liners and Reduce Noise

Overview:

Noise is becoming a major obstacle to growth in air transport as increasing numbers of airports place restrictions on the amount of noise that can be generated by an aircraft during various phases of flight. Airbus is working hard to reduce aircraft noise such as by improving the nacelle acoustic liners used to minimize the fan noise radiated from the engine. The company has dramatically reduced the time required to design and evaluate optimized acoustic liners by moving to a simulation-based process using Actran acoustic simulation software developed by Free Field Technologies (FFT), MSC Software Company.

Challenge:

The acoustic liners that are built into the engine nacelle are fundamental in controlling fan noise. Acoustic liners present a major design challenge because they must address a large number of conflicting design requirements. Liners must provide high levels of noise reduction over a wide range of engine operating conditions and frequencies. Liners must also meet tight space restrictions and need to be as light as possible in order to limit fuel consumption. The liner is typically designed at a point when aspects of the airframe and engine are not completely defined so the liner design must be flexible enough to adapt to changes. The liner must be able to survive exposure to heat, cold, water, oil, and maintenance operations. Finally, the liner must be durable enough to deliver decades of service in the highly demanding aircraft engine environment.

Solution:

Liners are typically manufactured in two or three curved segments that are assembled with longitudinal splices. Simulation with Actran and other numerical tools helped to reveal the substantial impact of splices on forward fan noise and these simulations were confirmed with physical testing. These simulations made it possible to compute the radiated noise fields under all relevant engine operating conditions and predict the noise reduction in certification conditions. The design of the zero-splice concept, through numerical simulation, made it possible to significantly reduce the fan noise and the acoustic discomfort.

Results Validation:

Airbus developed an integrated numerical chain for Actran in order to streamline its use by acoustics engineers who are not numerical experts. The chain, called Automated Liner Optimization Chain for Nacelles Air Inlets and Exhausts (ANaNax), automates the simulation process from engine geometry to Actran results including prompting the user for all required information and performing validation checks on the data entered by users. “A typical optimization loop for the nacelle liner requires evaluation of 80 liner iterations and three flight conditions at a frequency range from 125 Hz to 5650 Hz which means we need to simulate several thousand different cases,” Suratteau said. “Robustness and accuracy of the simulations is critical so realistic 3D shapes, flows and boundary conditions are a must. ANaNax greatly reduces the time required for non- analytical experts to perform simulations and to check their work to be sure inputs are realistic. Computation time has also been drastically decreased by the implementation of a high performance computing (HPC) platform based on Westmere X5670 Infiniband technology with 5312 cores combined with the high scalability of Actran.

Benefits:
  • Reduce product development costs by avoiding expensive post-design changes.
  • Reduce test/analysis iterations
  • Improve performance predictions

 
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Company:

IDEA International

Products:

Dytran
MSC Nastran
Patran

Industries:

Shipbuilding

IDEA International - Explicit Analysis of Tsunami Survival Capsule

Overview:
In order to ensure that the capsule can withstand the harsh environment of a tsunami, IDEA engineers are using MSC’s simulation technology. “The use of MSC Nastran and Patran allows us to understand the performance of the capsule and reduce the test program substantially,” said Scott Hill, IDEA Engineering Director of IDEA, Inc. “Also, the analytical simulation results that MSC Nastran and Patran provides, allows us to greatly understand the structure and predict eventualities which may cause issues during a Tsunami event. As a result we can remove these issues during the design phase.”

Benefits:
  • Greater understanding of structural damage due to a variety of large impact events.
  • Less physical testing and prototypes due to accuracy of simulation.
  • Increased safety of vessel.
For more information please watch the Tsunami Survival Capsule Video.

 

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