Company:

Thales Angenieux

Products:

Adams

Industries:

消费品

Adams View helps to optimize time to inspect sub-assemblies for zoom lenses

Overview:

The defining characteristic of a zoom lens is that its focal length can be varied. The focal length determines the angle of view — how much of the scene will be captured — and the magnification —how large individual elements will be. The shorter the focal length, the wider the angle of view and the lower the magnification. The advantage of zoom lenses over lenses with a fixed focal length is that you don’t have to change lenses to achieve a tighter or a wider composition. Most zoom lenses, particularly those designed for consumer and professional photographers, lose focus when the focal length is changed. But high-end zoom lenses, especially those designed for producing films or television, can be zoomed in and out without losing focus. This type of lens is called a parfocal lens. The first parfocal lens capable of zooming in an out while maintaining precise focus to a degree acceptable for demanding cinema production was designed and built by Pierre Angénieux in 1956, a feat for which he received an Academy award for technical excellence. Parfocal zoom lenses are very difficult to design and build. Zoom lenses generally consist of three different groups; two of them are moving together (to change focal length) and the last one independently (to focus) and one stationary group of lenses with each group comprising two of more lens elements.

Results Validation:

With the new method proven, Ayad simulated all of the company’s zoom lenses and found the worst-case position for each lens. Now inspectors are able to inspect the tilt simply by moving the lens to this position and making the measurements. The net result is that the time needed to inspect each lens has been reduced.

Benefits:
  • Inspection time has been reduced
  • Less experienced operators can perform the inspection
  • Adams simulation accurately predict worst case position

 
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Company:

Navistar & Tech Mahindra

Products:

Adams

Industries:

汽车

Adams Simulation of Hose Routing Helps Reduce Time to Market by Six Weeks

Overview:

It takes a 450 horsepower truck with an 80,000 lb. load roughly 90 seconds to accelerate to 50 mph but the brakes must be able to stop the truck in less than 5 seconds. Air brakes are used almost exclusively in heavy-duty trucks and trailers because they offer the following advantages. First, the air they run on is free. It only needs to be compressed, cleaned, stored and distributed. The air brake circuit can be easily expanded so trailers can be coupled and uncoupled from it. Besides providing the energy required to stop the vehicle, compressed air also signals when and with how much force the brakes should be applied in any situation. Finally, air brakes can be designed with sufficient fail-safe devices to bring the vehicle safely to a stop, even in the event of an air leak. Reinforced rubber hoses deliver air from fittings on the frame to brake chambers on the axles. In a typical tandem rear suspension there are typically 8 brake hoses plus additional hoses for the power differential lock and other features for a total of 11. The hoses must be routed through a tight space and accommodate the full range of steering gear and suspension travel. The hoses are required to avoid contact with components with sharp edges that might wear the hoses, maintain a specified minimum bend radius to avoid constricting flow within the hose, and avoid axial forces high enough to pull out the hose out of the fitting.

Results Validation:

“Simulation makes it possible to try many different positions, orientations, and clipping options early in the design phase prior to the availability of a prototype,” said Stefano Cassara, Manager Vehicle Dynamics Simulation for Navistar. “New design iterations can be evaluated in a small fraction of the time required for physical testing. The new approach makes it possible to design new hose configurations in only about two weeks. Since the design process will be carried out early and outside the critical path we should be able to bring new vehicles to market six weeks faster than in the past. Another advantage of the new approach is that we can model loading scenarios, such as braking, that cannot be duplicated on the test rig.”

Benefits:
  • Simulation of hose routing helps reduce time to market by six weeks
  • Adams predictions perfectly matched test results in each steering position
  • Simulation provides a much better understanding of how to route the braking hoses to avoid contact with components with sharp edges that might wear the hoses in response to suspension and steering movement
  • New Adams FE Part provided a fast and accurate way to predict the large deformation of brake hoses in Adams environment

 
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Company:

Products:

Actran Acoustics
Actran AeroAcoustics
Actran DGM
Actran for Trimmed Body
Actran TM
Actran VI
Actran VibroAcoustics
Adams

Industries:

汽车

运动机构的噪声预测

Overview:
减少设计优质产品所需的开发时间和所耗资源,一直是一个重大的产业挑战。不同CAE技术的集成让我们朝这个目标向前迈进了一步。本文将讨论Adams与Actran,MSC软件公司的MBD与声学解决方案,如何组合并集成在一起,使MBD工程师在设计流程的早期洞察运动机构的声学行为具备可能。此外,声学工程师还可以从声学结果的进一步后处理中得到更多有价值的信息。
Challenge:
一般来说,预测出自诸如传输系统或变速箱这样的运动系统的噪声是很难的。如果没有准确地预测系统动态如何影响其噪声性能的能力,工程师们就没有一个有效的方法来重新设计他们的系统,以提高声学性能。传统的工作流程涉及三个界面,多体动力学(MBD)工具,有限元分析(FEA)工具和声学软件。首先,工程师将需要在MBD工具里执行动力学分析以获取齿轮壳表面的动态载荷,因为时域结果通常不能被声学软件直接读取,他们需要在频域下转换成完全的结构响应,然后,他们将可以最终把表面振动读取到声学软件中,并用它作为边界条件。这个工作流程是相当费力的,每次有设计变更时都可能需要多个CAE工程师一起合作。 MSC软件公司最近已经开发了一种新的方法,允许工程师在ADAMS界面进行建模,并在没有手动导出结果到声学软件进行噪声分析的情况下获取声学行为的初步结果和印象。这种新工作流程大大减少了对诸如变速箱这样的运动机构进行声学分析的时间和成本,与传统方法相比,新方法使工程师对新系统的设计在同样的时间里能做更多的迭代。
Solution:
让我们考虑一个变速箱的例子:齿轮运动引起变速箱的振动,这种振动又会影响齿轮的物理行为从而引发强耦合问题。振动的变速箱也会将能量转换到周边流体以及将能量转换成由其辐射的声波。同时,声波也会影响结构振动。然而,如果一方面多体动力学和结构仿真领域通常是强耦合的,并可以同时被求解,而另一方面,当考虑发生在空气中的声辐射时,从声波到结构的反馈又会被忽略。要评估的声学响应,我们可以考虑在变速箱周围分布一些麦克风。在Adams模型中,变速箱外壳被考虑成弹性体以捕捉其表面响应。变速箱的剩余部分(如齿轮、轴、轴承等)是刚性部件。建立Adams模型后,执行一个5s 动力学分析, 输入轴的转速从0到3000rpms 加大。从分析中,我们得到了每个组件的负载和接触力输出,以及每个系统部件的位移,速度和加速度输出。以下MBD仿真,仍然在ADAMS环境中进行,声学工具启动以建立诸如声学网格、无限元半径、声速、流体密度、输出格式、声环境(材料)等的声学分析参数。这个工具所做的事情,就是将MBD结果转换成的声学模型所需的边界条件,并在后台使用新的Actran时域求解器执行声学分析。在Adams环境中进行声学仿真时,你可以到MBD后处理器中得到这个变速箱壳体的一些声学结果,比如每个麦克风位置围绕麦克风的时域下的声压演化以及声音文件(.WAV)。
Results Validation:
CAE技术集成的先进性使开发时间和所耗资源减少。本文通过说明如何集成Adams和Actran提高CAE工程师的工作流程效率,提供了一个展示这些好处的例子。具体而言,将多体动力学和声学时域分析集成到Adams环境,使MBD工程师进行产品的初步声学性能评价。得益于音频文件的生成,这些评价同时包括了噪声质量的考察。最后,只有在最相关的案例中,才需要由声学工程师在Actran环境中执行高级的后处理。
Benefits:
CAE技术集成的先进性使开发时间和所耗资源减少。本文通过说明如何集成Adams和Actran提高CAE工程师的工作流程效率,提供了一个展示这些好处的例子。具体而言,将多体动力学和声学时域分析集成到Adams环境,使MBD工程师进行产品的初步声学性能评价。得益于音频文件的生成,这些评价同时包括了噪声质量的考察。最后,只有在最相关的案例中,才需要由声学工程师在Actran环境中执行高级的后处理。

 
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Company:

IRCCyN

Products:

Adams

Industries:

机械

Adams simulation helps validate a concept called the “hidden robot model” to improve visual serving accuracy

Overview:

The vast majority of robots are controlled through the use of encoders that measure joint rotation. But even when encoders with very high levels of accuracy are used, the ability of robots to move to an absolute XYZ position and ABC orientation is limited by deflection, thermal expansion and manufacturing variation. Some applications, such as placement of a disk drive read head, require very higher levels of positioning accuracy that can only be achieved with a very expensive, special purpose robot. This challenge is being addressed with visual servoing technology that uses a vision system to acquire an image that determines the relative positions of the robot end-effector and the target.

Results Validation:

“The concept of the hidden robot model is a powerful tool able to analyze the intrinsic properties of some controllers developed by the visual servoing community,” Sébastien Briot concluded. “Adams simulations have played an important role in validating our theoretical work on hidden robot models. The integration of Adams with Simulink through Adams/Controls eliminated the need for us to write complex equations for predicting the dynamics of parallel robots and also provided graphical results that gave us a better understanding of robot behavior.”

Benefits:
  • Adams simulation accurately predicted position and orientation of the robot.
  • Simulation played an important role in validating the theoretical work
  • Complex equations are no longer needed to predict the dynamics of parallel robots

 
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Company:

e-Xstream engineering

Products:

Digimat
Marc

Industries:

汽车

Digimat-FE to identify Anisotropic Damping Behavior of multi-phases materials

Challenge:

Reinforced plastics and composite materials are chosen more and more because of their improved performance regarding damping for NVH applications compared to current metals. Material specialists need to efficiently identify this mechanical characteristic which, like the stiffness and failure, is anisotropic and driven by local fiber orientations in the material’s microstructure. Moreover for NVH purposes, the frequency dependency must be clearly identified in order to provide accurate material models to design engineers.

Benefits:
  • Available in < 2 days when using available constituent models
  • Quickly evaluate various multiphase materials to identify the best candidates for NVH targets
  • Avoid waiting time and unneeded cost of performing additional experimental tests for each candidate material

 
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Company:

VTT芬兰技术研究中心

Products:

Actran Acoustics
Actran AeroAcoustics
Actran DGM
Actran for Trimmed Body
Actran TM
Actran VI
Actran VibroAcoustics

Industries:

汽车

VTT 芬兰技术研究中心

Overview:
Actran模型中的更改最终在真实消声器上得以实现,噪声测试在更改后的消声器上重新进行。测试结果表明新的设计使100Hz三分之一倍频程的噪声降低了20dB,并使总体噪声降低了10dB。基于Actran的仿真结果,工程人员可以完全理解这个特定的噪声问题,并提出简单有效的解决方法。
Challenge:
在芬兰城市瓦萨一个居住区的居民们对附近的噪声干扰提出了投诉。居民区的噪声来自于附近的一个瓦锡兰船用四冲程中速发动机的陆上测试工厂。初步调查结果表明,这让人难以忍受的噪声来源于一台W6L32E发动机1000小时耐久测试的排气设备。在发动机夜间测试时进行了一次环境噪声的调查,在位于测试厂房及附近居住区之间的三个测点位置进行了噪声测量。噪声级测量结果显示噪声尖值在100Hz三分之一倍频程中的94Hz附近产生。此频率对应于发动机曲轴转动频率的7.5阶频率。正常情况下,W6L32E型发动机的噪声尖值会出现在其曲轴转动频率的3阶和4.5阶上。而此次测量到的噪声远不满足夜间环境噪声的限制标准。初步猜测认为噪声主要来自于半阶数的模块化部件产生的低频噪声。通过进一步实验希望找到在100Hz三分之一倍频程中产生噪声的确切原因。

 
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Company:

Products:

MSC Apex

Industries:

汽车

MSC Apex 助力 Fiedler 公司大幅缩短建模准备时间使产品开发全面提速

Overview:
MSC 软件公司日前宣布,Fiedler 公司通过使用 MSC Apex 将仿真过程所需时间缩短了 80% 左右
Challenge:
Fiedler公司的产品开发团队是有限元计算领域的行家里手。此类计算的起点一般是利用 CAD 几何体来创建有限元模型。尤其在处理复杂的模型时,这些计算准备工作(包括网格划分和几何体的准备)通常是整个开发过程中劳动密集度最高、最容易出差错的阶段。没有足够的洞察力的话,网格划分是一项艰难的工作。
Solution:

      Fiedler 公司所处理的模型包括矿业机械机架之类的大型焊接结构,这些结构通常包括数以百计的薄壁实体。工程师们根据这些实体来创建中间面模型,然后利用壳单元交叉连接在一起。中间面的创建与连接是一项相当耗时的工作。而借助 MSC Apex,只需一次点击就可以自动完成近 80% 的 工作。通过交互的方式拖拽几何边界并在同一平面内移动中间面,就可以完成剩余表面的手工连接。与传统程序相比,MSC Apex 的效率更高。如果已经完成了几何体的网格划分,还可以进行交互式几何体处理。网格将自动更新,用户可以直接查看几何体的变化对网格的影响。

     

Benefits:
Fiedler 工程服务有限公司首席执行官 Peter Siebenbäck 表示:“通过使用 MSC Apex,我们的项目做到了多快好省,而我们的工程师也能将更多的时间用于复杂的仿真工作。这样既提升了产品质量,又节约了时间和金钱。”

 

Company:

e-Xstream engineering

Products:

Digimat
Marc

Industries:

航空

Effect of Residual Stresses Induced by Manufacturing Process in Discontinuous Fiber Composites (DFC) Made Part

Challenge:

Discontinuous fiber composites (DFC) are produced by compression molding of prepreg chips which are made of a combination of unidirectional fiber and a Thermoset or ThermoPlastic matrix. In some cases, matrix is made of thermoset which consolidate through a chemical/ cure reaction at elevated temperature. However, when the curing cycle is not well monitored it can be observed some cracks that appear between the chips due to apparition of thermal stresses normal to two chips.

Due to their complex microstructure, these materials request the definition of new dedicated methods in order to capture accurately the local orientation and to compute the local homogenized properties in order to simulate correctly the curing and the design process. Hence, the Digimat platform is used to build a complete methodology to compute these residual stresses and to take them into account during the design cycle of the part.

Benefits:
  • Propose a complete methodology to analyze Discontinuous Fiber Composites: Understand the effect of the local microstructure on the behavior of the part.
  • Improve the understanding of the effects of the manufacturing cycle parameters: Evaluate the risk fo the apparition of defects between the chips for a given set of parameters of manufacturing (pressure, temperature histories). Though their nature is different, this procedure can be applied for both, thermoset or thermoplastic resin.

 
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Company:

National Institute for Aviation Research

Products:

Digimat

Industries:

航空
汽车

Digimat Virtual Allowables

Challenge:

Designing lightweight CFRP structures with confidence requires access to allowables values. Allowables generation is extremely time and money consuming. Various layups, coupon tests and environment conditions must be covered for each characterized material system. Each test configuration must be repeated many times to obtain a statistical evaluation of the mechanical property.

Results Validation:

Digimat-VA successfully predicted allowable values within 10% error for all cases except the soft open-hole tension scenario. Typical run times for unnotched tests were 3 minutes, while it look less than 10 minutes for open-hole cases.


 
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Company:

e-Xstream engineering

Products:

Digimat
Marc

Industries:

航空

Use of Digimat to Simulate Progressive Failure in a T-Stiffener Accounting Voids Due to Manufacturing Defects

Challenge:

Laminate T-stiffeners are widely used in the aerospace industry to transfer the 3D complex loads between the stiffeners and the skins. However, the way they are manufactured can affect the inherent properties.

In this case, we have considered that the stiffener and the skin were assembled using an RTM process but because of the poor infiltration of the resin due to the fiber orientation changings, some dry spots appear in the noodle. These dry spots or voids affect the mechanical properties of the noodle and this knock-down of properties must be taken into account during the design process.

Results Validation:

With Digimat, effective modeling solution enables to understand the sequence of failure of the structure and the resultant load level. The results allowed to capture the progressive loss of stiffness of the structure and the resulting load.


 
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Company:

Omni-Lite Industries

Products:

Simufact

Industries:

航空

Simufact 降低了冷成型工具设计的开发成本及时间

Overview:

Omni-Lite Industries 是一家技术领先的材料加工公司。该公司最近设计了一款表现出独特材料流动的新部件。该部件采用 1100 铝材冷压成型。新部件的制造工艺利用三套模具的冲压进程,并在中岛田TH3 -6A 冷成型机上生产。 采用MSC Software 公司提供的 Simufact.forming 仿真完成了工具初步设计并进行了评审。在初步评审时,除了部件法兰内的材料体积以外,似乎一切都满足要求。随后减小了第二个工段的凹型挤压模的半径,以满足减少材料体积要求。


 
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Company:

空客

Products:

Actran Acoustics
Actran AeroAcoustics
Actran DGM
Actran for Trimmed Body
Actran TM
Actran VI
Actran VibroAcoustics

Industries:

航空

仿真帮助空中客车优化发动机声衬,降低飞机噪声

Challenge:

挑战:

解决方案: 飞机降噪的重要性 航空噪声是在当前世界进一步扩展 和改进空路交通系统的重大限制之一。 交通航路的增容以及机场附近居民数量 的增加正在加重航空噪声对居住社区的 冲击。世界各地的机场已经采取了各项 措施应对飞机噪声问题,比如:准备噪 声特别预算,规定航空公司飞行限额, 夜间飞行噪声限制等等。涡扇发动机的 风扇噪声,喷流噪声均是飞机起飞阶段 最大的噪声源。风扇将空气吸进发动机 前方,这产生了类似于螺旋桨系统的噪 声。空气在离开风扇的同时产生旋转, 这产生了动量的下降,因而空气需要被 风扇后端一系列定子装置重新引导为平 行方向。空气对定子叶片的冲击是另一 重要噪声源。 发动机短舱中铺设的声衬对控制风 扇噪声起到决定性作用。声衬的设计极 富挑战,因为声衬需要面对大量且对立 的设计要求。声衬必须在多个发动机工 作状态以及大范围频率内提供高水平的 降噪表现。声衬还需要面对窄小设计空 间以及轻量化设计的限制。声衬的设计 一般在发动机各方面参数还没有完全确 定的阶段,因此声衬同样需要具备设计 灵活度,以适应其他变化。声衬需要适 应冷热环境,面对水和油的侵蚀,经历 多次维护操作。最后,声衬需要具备足 够的耐久性,以保证在多年使用过程中 满足航空发动机的严苛操作环境下的挑 战。

Solution:

改进声衬设计 最早的声衬设计方式基于静态发动 机测试。在测试中,发动机被至于试验 台上运转,其噪声水平由一些列传声器 所测量。此种方式成本相当昂贵,而且 对设计的评价无法在发动机原型机成型 前进行。为解决这一问题,空中客车的 工程师们采用了解析分析工具来预测噪 声水平,但是解析解只适用于相当简化 的几何形状,因而其效用在模拟真实短 舱问题上大打折扣。


 
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Company:

Products:

Actran Acoustics
Actran AeroAcoustics
Actran DGM
Actran for Trimmed Body
Actran TM
Actran VI
Actran VibroAcoustics

Industries:

航空

仿真模拟展示褥疮形成原因


 
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Company:

福特

Products:

Adams
Easy5

Industries:

航空

福特利用Adams FMI 联合仿真技术同时优化燃油经济性与NVH性能

Overview:
噪声/振动/舒适性(Noise/Vibration/Harshness 简称NVH) 与燃油经济性,在车辆设计过程中,通常需要进行折中的考虑。例如,拖拽特性是一个典型工况,当汽车运行在高档位、发动机低于2000 rpm,驾驶员驱动油门踏板,发动机驱动车辆,这时产生的是相对低扭矩,所以加速度也是较低的。因为发动机工作在低速、低的点火频率和高的负载下,所以拖拽产生了较高的低频输入。驾驶员和乘客通常能感受到这些低频输入,比如座椅导轨处振动、转向盘振动和驾驶室内部的轰鸣声音。工程师控制这种拖拽,有一种主要的方法就是通过变矩器实现,即利用液力耦合器改变或者放大从发动机到变速箱的扭矩。变矩器包括一个泵,涡轮,叶轮与定子(一个充满油液的腔体,一个锁止离合器和减震器总成)。离合器是电子控制的,它提供一个理想的变化率。当需要时,离合器锁住,从而将发动机与变速器直接连接,这时传递效率是100%和最佳的燃油经济性。在锁定模式下,发动机扭矩波动直接发送到变速箱,可能导致传动系统产生振动和噪声。有渐变特性的变矩器增加了阻尼,从而降低发动机传递到传动系统振动的灵敏度,改善NVH性能。但是从另外一方面考虑,渐变特性由于有液力耦合和离合器的摩擦,降低了效率,增加了油耗。
Challenge:

挑战

 

在开发新车型时通常会遇到一系列的,通常又是相互矛盾的特性设计。燃油经济性与NVH特性是 2 个最重要的设计目标值。考虑到拖拽特性,NVH工程师们通常控制变速箱传递到传动轴振动的幅值,低于一定的目标值。NVH团队往往喜欢较大的变化率去达到设计目标,而当他们又需要考虑燃油经济性的时候,则又希望这个变化率尽可能的低。在没有原型车和测试车时,想要得到高精度的扭转振动振幅是不可能的,然而开发阶段的后期,设计被结,再想去优化性能,就会变得十分昂贵,或者可能导致生产延误。福特正在寻求一种方法去模拟不同的变矩器的影响,从而使工程师在设计和开发阶段,能更合理的匹配性能。

Solution:

方案/验证

 

福特的工程师们解决了这个难题, 方法是利用MSC软件Adams新功能,其 支持功能模块接口(Functional Mock- Up Interface 简称FMI),是一个开放的标 准工具,利用这个工具可以进行数据交 换和联合仿真。FMI标准,可以从一组 模型的物理规律和数字控制系统创建一 个虚拟产品。一个FMI构成的模型称为 功能模块单元( Functional Mock-Up Unit,简称FMU)。一个FMU文件包含一 个用XML格式描述的文件、动态链接库和模型数据库文件。FMI文件FMI可用于 交换或联合仿真模型。在Adams中FMI扩 展了Adams/Controls功能, 可以与 MATLAB 和EASY5联合仿真,也可以与 其他兼容 FMI 格式的软件进行联合仿 真。在这个案例中,福特工程师们利用 Adams中3D传动系统和整车模型作为主 要部分,与 AMSim 中1D控制器斜率控 制模型一起,把斜率变化率当做优化目 标,来达到整车的拖拽NVH目标,同时 实现燃油经济性最大化。传动模型是利 用Adams/Driverline建立的,包括一个汽 油涡轮增压直喷发动机(由三个悬置支持)、一个含有锁止离合的变矩器、一 个 6 速变速箱(内部有轴和变位齿轮 等)和一个前置传动系(包含差速器、 连接轴、半轴、等速副和车轮)。这个 传动系统模型是利用Adams/car嵌入到 整车模型中的。这个整车模型还包含底 盘、悬架、转向、制动和车轮系统的。 AMSim变矩器模型包含PID控制单元,控 制器在转换离合上施加一个法向的力, 力的大小是根据实际的变化率和实际变 化率之间的变化而变化的。

Results Validation:

结果

 

Mario Felice说:“我们用不同的转 速变化率带入模型中,其中转速变化率 覆盖发动机转速。仿真结果显示,变化 率在30rpm或者更低不能达到NVH设计目 标值,必须大于 40rpm 的变化率才可 以。仿真结果还显示当变化率在 40rpm的时候是一个优化的值,NVH性能 和燃油经济性能得到最好的匹配。”工 程师们进一步研究减小由离合器阻尼特 性和变矩器的变化率产生的扭转振动的 幅值。他们还比较了当转速变化率为0 rpm和40 rpm的时候,转向盘和座椅导 轨处的振动,由于通过改变变矩器的变 化率,转向盘和座椅导轨处的振动明显 下降。Felice还说:“下一步,我们会 细化变矩器的模型,建立液压系统,从 而提供更加准确的用一个时域函数表示 的预测力,我们还将计划用物理测试结 果来验证模型的有效性。然后我们还计 划,将在设计过程中充分的利用联合仿 真技术,从而使变矩器的设计在产品开 发周期的早期就可以进行优化。


 
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Company:

Litens

Products:

Adams
Marc

Industries:

航空

利用联合仿真进行系统分析可获取相对于传统方式15倍速度

Overview:
Litens 公司利用MSC公司的Marc非线性有限元软件拓展了精确模拟其扭矩调节器操作的能力,包括设计行为的研究,元件的运动及其之间相互作用,以及在动态加载状态下的研究等。通过对建议性方案的精确性能预估,仿真可节省大量的成本,不需要考虑在建模和测试样机上花费大量时间。可是对于非线性有限元分析计算必须考虑计算资源,因为它每次只分析一个元件。比如,执行一个典型仿真需要30个小时,这就限制了非线性分析在设计阶段的使用。

 
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